This page presents the taxonomies that are used to categorise the contents within the Portfolio of Solutions and the Guidance .
  • Capability development
    • Establish a CM lessons learning system
      • Develop after-action and lessons learned reporting

        Develop after-action and reporting system and procedures, i.e.:

        a. Develop and after-action reporting procedures

        b. Establish lessons-learning database and analysis capacity and develop a collaborative platform to support new tools like situation reports, guidelines, task sheets and checklists, scenarios, etc.

        c. Adapt post- reviews to feed a lessons-learned information system

        d. Provide interagency of personnel on after-action reports analysis and drafting lessons learned

        e. Establish procedures for implementation of lessons learned

      • Provide cross-border learning

        Provide opportunities for cross-border learning

    • Establish CM doctrine and train organisations and people
      • Certify personnel, training and education

        Certify management personnel, centres, and educational institutions

      • Coordinate and conduct research and education

        Coordinate and conduct research and education, i.e.:

        a. Organise hazard and CM studies and develop modelling and simulation capacity to understand data flows, bottlenecks, integration and issues

        b. Establish hazards and CM discipline and a research and education network

      • Develop doctrine

        Develop, approve and disseminate among all stakeholders a Management doctrine

      • Train individuals, teams and organisations
      • Train resilient communities

        Train resilient communities, incl. for provision of MHPSS

    • Manage CM system of systems development
      • Develop awareness and decision support systems
      • Develop integrated warning and alerting
      • Develop the C3 system

        Develop the command, control, and coordination system (presented in detail in Common Functional Area 'C3')

      • Develop the communications and information management system

        Develop the communications and information management system (presented in detail in Common Functional Area "Crisis communications and Infor_mation Management")

      • Establish a crisis logistics management system

        Establish logistics management system (presented in detail in Common Functional Area "Logistics")

      • Establish a solid waste collection system

        Establish a solid waste collection system (see also Operational Functional Area " ")

      • Establish resource management and mutual aid system

        Establish resource management and mutual aid system, including:

        a. Build decision support information for collecting, updating, and processing data, and tracking resources

        b. Define acquisition/ procurement procedures

        c. Establish a system for provision of mutual aid between different levels of command and management.

        d. Determine flow of requests and responds at national (interagency), regional, and local levels

      • Manage equipment and infrastructure acquisition

        Manage the CM equipment and infrastructure acquisition, including performance of the following tasks:

        a. Determine required capabilities

        b. Establish requirements/ standards

        c. Determine the key equipment life cycle

        d. Establish equipment certification procedures

        e. Regulate centralised/ decentralised acquisition procedures

        f. Manage acquisition contracts

        g. Manage the equipment lifecycle

        h. Enhance the of supply chains

      • Manage the system of reserves

        Manage the system of and reserves and stockpiles

    • Manage human resources
      • Manage organised and spontaneous volunteers
        • Conduct needs analysis

          Conduct needs analysis; assure adequate legislation for the use of volunteers

        • Establish organisation for spontaneous volunteers

          Establish to identify and register spontaneous volunteers and to assign them to teams and coordinators

        • Maintain registers of volunteers

          Create and maintain current registers of volunteers, their competencies and tasking

        • Prepare for crowd tasking

          Prepare for crowd tasking, i.e. tasking spontaneous volunteers

        • Select, organise, train, and motivate the volunteers

          Select, organise, train, and motivate the volunteers; provide for allocation of responsibilities among relevant governmental and non-governmental organisations

        • Task volunteers

          Provide preliminary tasking to organised volunteers across scenarios

      • Manage professional responders

        Manage career models and professional responders, i.e.:

        a. Conduct general, regional, and local needs analysis

        b. Establish a framework of competencies and behavioural indicators

        c. Establish a CM profession with career paths and job requirements

        d. Select, organise, train, certify and motivate the professional responders

        e. Assure that CM leaders are knowledgeable, competent, and well supported

    • Organise for crisis management
      • Define minimum activation requirements

        Define a set of minimum activation requirements for situations at different levels of command and management

      • Establish an integrated CM organisation

        Establish an integrated for management, i.e.:

        a. Establish a framework of authority at central, regional, and local level

        b. Achieve consensus on the overall CM process

        c. Establish legal lines of authority, duties, and responsibilities

        d. Establish CM HQ, supporting centres, and local command structures

      • Establish CM rules and standard operating procedures

        Establish rules and standard operating procedures for management, i.e.:

        a. Draft, coordinate, and approve CM legal acts

        b. Define critical pre-crisis, , and procedures for different levels of command and management

        c. Prepare, approve and communicate to all stakeholders SOPs for each hazard

        d. Establish hazards' information and data requirements and rules for their collection and sharing

      • Establish protocols for cross-border emergencies

        Prepare and agree in the relevant international format on protocols for cross-border emergencies

      • Identify and analyse bottlenecks

        Identify key resource constraints and potential bottlenecks in decision-making and provision of resources and analyse their potential impact

    • Plan for CM capabilities
      • Assess current capabilities

        Collect and organise the information on current management capabilities and assess their adequacy vis-a-vis the set of scenarios

      • Coordinate and approve capability development plans

        Coordinate planning processes and key resource allocation decisions among main contributing agencies; Approve development plans

      • Define capability options

        Generate and compare various options to meet requirements, e.g. upgrade existing or procure new equipment; introduce new standards; invest in specialised or general-purpose CM units; maintain in-house or outsource the , etc.

      • Define required CM capabilities

        Define required management CM capabilities, i.e.:

        a. Develop a CM concept of operations

        b. Formulate and coordinate a national generic CM task list

        c. Conduct mission-to-task analysis

        d. Define key clusters

        e. Set-up goals

      • Determine future crises' scenarios and key characteristics

        Determine key characteristics of future crises (type, scope, intensity, dynamics, complexity, impact, etc.), elaborate and analyse respective scenarios and select a set of scenarios to be used in the planning process

      • Establish a CM policy framework

        Establish a management policy framework, i.e.:

        a. Formulate and approve CM policy framework in terms of objectives, tasks, and responsibilities

        b. Conduct high-level cost-benefit analysis of the CM options, e.g., is it cheaper to reduce a vulnerability or to replace infrastructure and equipment; balance of investments in , protection, and , etc.

        c. Define priorities

        d. Make the policy framework available to all CM stakeholders

      • Identify gaps and redundancies

        Compare required and current capabilities; Identify gaps and redundant capabilities

      • Promote standards for assessment of hazards and interoperability

        Promote standards to provide for commonality of hazards’ and , e.g. common standards of fuel characterisation in regions prone to wildfires, data exchange formats, map symbols, etc.

      • Test the capability options

        Test the options against resource constrains and CM priorities

  • Command, control, and coordination
    • Build and maintain the C3 system
      • Design, test, and validate the C3 system

        Design, test, and validate the C3 system by components and in its entirety, i.e.:

          a. Establish C3 system for each participating agency

          b. Determine the levels of command and establish C3 system for each command level, e.g. operational, local, regional, and national (central)

          c. Provide doctrinal and technical and integrate agencies’ and authorities’ levels of command and management

      • Establish C3 information systems

        Establish C3 information systems and information system management

      • Establish C3 procedures

        Establish C3 procedures at all levels of command and management

      • Maintain integrity of the C3 system

        Maintain the integrity of the system for command, control, and coordination

      • Prepare C3 personnel

        Select, train and certify C3 personnel

      • Provide equipment, software, codes

        Provide required equipment, software, codes, etc.

      • Provide fixed and mobile command facilities

        Provide fixed and mobile (field, deployable) command infrastructure, equipment, software, personnel, , etc.

    • Establish the command component
      • Define the CM chain of command

        Define the CM chain of command, i.e.:

        a. Establish C3 at central, regional, and local levels

        b. Define authority and responsibilities at each level

        c. Define a framework and rules of delegating authority

        d. Define procedures and provide guidelines for incident, , and command and management

        e. Provide command integrity while transitioning from incident toward and

      • Establish decision-making environment and resources

        Establish CM relevant decision-making environment and dedicate resources

    • Establish the control component
      • Design a control system

        Design a control system along the chain of command, i.e.:

          a. Define the control tasks for decision-making, operations and resource planning, and implementation feedback

          b. Determine rules of control within each level and across all levels of command

          c. Establish planning and decision-preparing procedures for environment

          d. Formulate execution information (decisions, directives, orders, commands) and provide templates for each level of command

          e. Provide integrity while transitioning from incident toward and

      • Determine the principles of information exchange

        Determine the principles of exchange of CM information among agencies and levels of authority

      • Establish control capability at each command level

        Establish control at each level of command including information, communications, and (personnel)

      • Establish rules for reporting

        Establish rules for reporting on results and performance

      • Provide scientific and technical advice

        Provide in-house scientific and technical advice and ready access to external expertise

    • Establish the coordination component
      • Establish coordination in transition from response to recovery

        Establish coordination task group to manage the transition from to

      • Establish coordination with media

        Establish coordination teams and common rules for media relations and communicating with the public

      • Establish coordination with societal, private and international organisations

        Establish mechanisms for coordination with organisations, the private sector, and international organisations

      • Establish internal coordination

        Establish mechanisms for internal coordination:

          a. Between various ministries, agencies or policy sectors (horizontal)

          b. Between parent ministry and subordinate agencies/bodies in the same sector (vertical)

      • Establish professional coordination

        Establish professional coordination based on templates and permanent CM /staff

      • Establish transborder coordination

        Establish coordination in to a (potential) transborder

    • Exploit the C3 system
  • Crisis Communications and Information Management
    • Conduct and coordinate communications and information planning
      • Activate an interagency CCIM team

        Organise/activate an inter-agency communications and information management team to set up mechanisms for collecting, analysing, producing, and disseminating crisis information

      • Develop communications policy, plans and procedures

        Develop communications policy, plans and procedures to support government agencies, local authorities, private and organisations, i.e.:

        a. Make and maintain an of the communications and information environment

        b. Define each actor's communications and information management responsibilities and authority in the CM chain of command

        c. Clarify the target audience

        d. Develop implementation packages (audience, information, channels, tools, timeframe) and determine responsibilities

        e. Monitor, obtain institutional and public feedback and adjust as necessary

        f. Establish the ground for international cooperation in communications and information management

        g. Establish consultations and coordination among stakeholders in the development of communications policy, plans and procedures to facilitate the exchange of relevant information before and during a crisis

      • Develop cybersecurity policy, plans and procedures

        Develop cybersecurity policy, plans and procedures to secure the functioning of CM networks based on an all-hazards approach, i.e.:

        a. Define the cybersecurity's place in the management system

        b. Perform all-hazard inter-agency cyber

        c. Identify expertise and capabilities at the sub-government levels of CM, private actors, including operators of digital infrastructure, and volunteers

        d. Place the cyber security decision-making within the overall CM multijurisdictional decision-making process

        e. Determine which organisations to involve and the roles they will play in protection, and operations

      • Establish relationships between CM authorities and media

        Establish (renew) relationships between management authorities (teams) and media, i.e.:

        a. Coordinate the format of deliverable information

        b. Coordinate the work of media staff within the affected area (rules of engagement and support from the CM agencies)

      • Maintain a record of planning and decisions

        Maintain a record of the planning process and decisions to facilitate the of operations

      • Manage the frequency spectrum in a crisis

        Establish norms and mechanism of national frequency spectrum management for situations

      • Manage visibility in media

        Manage the production, use and dissemination of visual materials via Internet, social networks, TV, and newspapers for the management operations, agencies and organisations

    • Continuously improve CCIM
      • Establish equipment and training standards

        Establish and enforce the implementation of equipment and standards

      • Implement training programmes for CCIM

        Develop and implement programmes for (protection, , and relief) communications and information management, i.e.:

        a. Develop and conduct exercises to test the knowledge and skills of individuals and organisational and capabilities for using crisis communications and information

        b. Conduct exercises to test the , reliability and cybersecurity of the communications equipment and software

        c. Conduct crisis exercises to assess readiness

        d. Conduct multinational, national, regional, and local exercises

    • Create CCIM networks
      • Build CCIM components and functionalities

        Define, build, and maintain the communications and information management system's components and functionalities

        • Establish all-hazards database

          Establish all-hazards CM database and regulate the access to it

        • Integrate decision support

          Integrate CM decision support systems and tools, incl.:

            a. Incorporate into the decision support system(s) the outputs – status and forecasts – of the spread of hazards and their impact

            b. Integrate into the decision support system(s) the of cross-domain vulnerabilities and their impact

            c. Combine data from various sources and models’ output to provide decision support to managers and commanders

        • Manage data

          Manage access to data, data processing and distribution

        • Provide for crowd sourcing

          Create opportunities for application of relevant modes of crowd sourcing; disseminate the information on such opportunities

      • Establish crisis communications capabilities

        Establish and maintain communications capabilities, incl.:

        a. Define the communications and information requirements for central authorities, first responders, regional and local authorities, organisations and private entities

        b. Secure interoperable communications with responders, authorities and stakeholders in any environmental conditions through standards and coordination of acquisition

        c. Provide to obtain critical information remotely about the extent, perimeter, or interior of the incident

        d. Establish coordination with corporate communications systems and assets

      • Establish emergency call services

        Establish call services; disseminate information and guidance on the use of such services

      • Establish information management capabilities

        Establish and maintain information management capabilities

        • Ascertain the quality of data

          Check and ascertain the relevance and the quality of data

        • Define information management procedures

          Define and coordinate information management procedures among stakeholders to facilitate the exchange of related information

        • Determine reporting flows

          Describe and approve reporting flows and provide guidance to CM actors

        • Identify information needs of stakeholders

          Identify and analyse the information needs of management stakeholders

        • Integrate data collection tools

          Design and integrate tools for data collection, incl.:

            a. Provide near real-time feed of actual data to allow for of threats and reliable forecasts by the managers and commanders during operations

          b. Integrate data collection tools in a common data and information management architecture to assure

        • Set-up data analysis

          Determine data analysis procedures and provide respective capacity

        • Set-up data storage and retrieval

          Setup data storage and retrieval procedures and assets

        • Set-up dissemination and information sharing

          Define dissemination principles and routes for sharing information among CM actors and stakeholders

      • Provide CCIM technology support

        Provide technologies to support communications and information management, including solutions for

    • Establish CCIM organisation
      • Establish a concept of CCIM operations

        Coordinate and establish a concept of communications and information management operations

      • Provide secure storing and exchange of content

        Provide secure storing and exchange of content, i.e.:

          a. Establish structured information exchange system for data transformation and routing

          b. Develop collaborative tools for secure storing and exchange of data

          c. Develop collaborative tools for enterprise content management

      • Regulate access to CM communications and information

        Regulate access to management communications and information, i.e.:

          a. Define and coordinate overall rules for access to CM communications and information and standards for certification of networks, infrastructure, and personnel

          b. Develop and coordinate crisis communications and information management documentation and procedures across state agencies, local authorities, private entities, and organisations

          c. Establish standards, procedures and channels for granting and revoking employee access to resources or systems

          d. Establish procedures for authentication of users and dynamic modification of permissions during an

          e. Periodically review the access protocols for each critical asset or system to ensure that the right individuals have authorised access

      • Set-up an integrated CCIM network
        • Define requirements for CCIM infrastructure

          Define sectoral and geographic requirements for Communications and Information Management infrastructure

        • Establish CM operations infrastructure

          Establish management operations infrastructure for decision-making, organising, and controlling operations

        • Establish information management infrastructure

          Establish information management infrastructure for collecting, storing, processing, analysing, and disseminating the information needed for decision-making

        • Identify stakeholders' CCIM capabilities and procedures

          Identify stakeholders’ available communications and information management capabilities and issues

        • Organise CCIM's cybersecurity

          Establish cybersecurity roles and responsibilities of central and local authorities and participating agencies and procedures for information exchange, tasking and coordination

    • Exploit CCIM for protection, response, and recovery
      • Detect and debunk deception and rumours in social media

        Detect and debunk deception and rumours in the social media regarding the situation

      • Monitor media coverage

        Organise and conduct monitoring of media coverage on the impact of the , progress in made by the CM agencies, recommendations to the population, etc.

      • Provide communications and information support to C3

        Provide operational communications and information support to C3 by certain organisations (e.g. professional responders) to other stakeholders (e.g. local authorities, private actors, volunteers) to facilitate e.g.

      • Provide information to media and the public

        Prepare and provide relevant and adequate information to media and the public

        • Advise the leadership on working with media

          Advise the CM leadership on working with the media (monitoring their work, coordination)

        • Provide information on the crisis impact

          Provide or facilitate producing resources (photographs, maps, graphics, videos, press releases, etc.) that document the impact of the and of actions

      • Secure warning and alerting

        Secure warning and alerting to all command levels, CM agencies, and the public

      • Support C3 decision making

        Support decision making in the processes of command, control, and coordination, e.g. by implementing analysis, and predictive models and tools

  • Develop communications policy
  • Ensure safe and secure CM environment

    Ensure a safe and secure environment through law enforcement and related security and protection operations for people and communities located within affected areas and for all responders engaged in CM operations, i.e.:

      a. Perform early on-site actions

      b. Establish security control system in the affected area

      c. Develop (review) a site security plan

      d. Develop and implement case-specific physical security measures, countermeasures, and procedures

      e. Conduct security operations within, on the borders, and outside the affected area where evacuees are temporarily placed

      f. Share security related information with state and local officials, the private sector and the public, as appropriate

  • Exercise Evaluation
  • Identify hazards and threats

    Identify all potential hazards and threats to be tracked.

  • Logistics
    • Conduct transportation logistics
      • Plan, organise, and resource transportation logistics

        Plan, organise, and resource transportation logistics for protection, and

      • Provide transportation equipment and procedures for its use

        Provide transportation equipment and establish procedures for moving materiel from storage facilities and vendors to people in the affected area, evacuation camps and other facilities

      • Provide transportation of responders and supplies

        Provide transportation of responders and supplies to and within the affected area:

        a. Provide strategic transportation

        b. Meet responders' requests for transportation

        c. Provide transportation of materials, medicine and medical materials, food and water for first aid to affected people

      • Provide transportation support to other stakeholders

        Provide transportation support to other agencies, task groups, spontaneous volunteers, etc.

      • Transport debris and waste

        Provide transportation of debris and waste

    • Establish crisis logistics management system
      • Develop logistics policy, plans, and programmes

        Identify required resources and develop logistics policy, plans, and programmes

      • Establish logistics C3

        Establish a system command, control, and coordination of logistics

      • Establish supply chains

        Establish a system of supply chains management

      • Identify the components of crisis logistics support

        Identify the components of the logistics support structure, i.e.:

        a. Define roles and responsibilities of logistics managers and organisations

        b. Provide a concept of operations for logistics support

        c. Establish principles and procedures for logistics support between agencies and local authorities

      • Provide end-to-end visibility of resources

        Establish and manage an infrastructure and database to provide end-to-end visibility of resources

      • Provide norms for procurement in crises

        Provide norms, procedures and responsibilities for procurement and contracting during crises

    • Manage facilities
      • Manage acquired property

        Manage property acquired to support and relief operations

      • Manage evacuation camps and related services

        Establish and operate facilities, temporary deployable accommodation camps and other evacuation facilities, and manage related services, within and outside the affected area

      • Operate facilities and manage related services

        Establish and operate facilities and manage related services to shelter and support responders

      • Operate waste and debris management facilities

        Identify, establish and operate facilities for management of waste and debris, enabling reuse, and where possible, and disposal when required

      • Select storage and distribution facilities

        Conduct location, selection, and acquisition of storage and distribution facilities

    • Manage materiel logistics
      • Create common operational framework for prioritisation

        Create common operational framework to prioritise the use of key assets, needed by various task forces

      • Determine materiel requirements

        Determine materiel requirements for operational functions and command levels

      • Perform consumer logistics

        Perform consumer logistics, providing storage, repair, maintenance of CM materiel and its disposal

      • Perform maintenance and repair logistics

        Perform maintenance and repair logistics during 'Protection', ' ' and ' '

      • Perform production logistics within "Preparedness"

        Perform production logistics within the " " function, providing specification, design and production of required materiel

      • Perform supply logistics

        Perform supply logistics, determining stock levels, provisioning, distribution and replenishment of materiel between responders and CM command levels

    • Provide logistics services

      Provide operational re-supply, map distribution, labour resources, postal and courier services, canteen, laundry and bathing facilities, burials, etc., for responders, volunteers, the people in temporary shelters, hospitals, and housings within and outside the affected area

    • Provide medical logistics
      • Direct additional national and international medical support

        Accept and direct additional national and international medical support for the victims

      • Plan medical logistics

        Plan, coordinate, contract, and resource medical logistics for and , i.e.:

          a. Estimate medicines' and other medical materials requirements for incidents, , and crisis situations and establish reserves according to the hazards mapping

          b. Maintain database of the national, regional and local medical organisations, medical personnel, and medical materials

          c. Develop and maintain policy, plans, and programmes for securing CM medical logistics capacity

          d. Establish public-private partnerships for medical logistics

      • Provide medical supplies

        Coordinate and provide medical supplies to meet operational requests

  • Mitigation
    • Assess the risks
      • Assess vulnerabilities to hazards

        Assess exposure and vulnerabilities of critical infrastructures, assets and essential services to hazards, cyber and CBRNE threats, incl.::

        a. Define infrastructure and assets potentially affected by hazards, cyber and CBRNE threats

        b. Set vulnerability criteria

        c. Identify critical infrastructure and assets

        d. Quantify the infrastructure and assets' value

        e. Assess vulnerabilities of essential services

      • Conduct all-hazards identification, documentation and analysis

        Undertake hazards identification, registration and analysis using an approved, recognised methodology that considers all plausible hazards, both natural and human-made, incl.:

        a. Document and make publicly available hazard identification and analysis ( assessments) to stakeholders and community members, and review them regularly

        b. Support assessment with scientific data, the use of GIS, and analysis of historical and projected impacts to identify area specific exposures and vulnerabilities

      • Estimate cascading effects

        Estimate the impact of possible cascading effects, e.g. a flood leading to epidemics or an earthquake causing a dam failure

      • Estimate cross-border impact

        Estimate possible cross-border impact of hazards

      • Estimate cross-domain effects

        Estimate possible cross-domain effects under the impact of concrete hazards, e.g. a natural leading to mass disorders

      • Estimate the risks

        Estimate risks by performing the following tasks:

        a. Collect evidence and define the risk factors (establish a scale)

        b. Establish database on population, economic, housing, health, infrastructure, climate, land, water, raw resources, cultural heritage, etc.

        c. Establish hazards scenarios

        d. Assess hazards impact to people, essential functions of the government and local administration, physical and digital infrastructure and assets and evaluate the levels of risks

        e. Develop and maintain civil security (e.g. vulnerability to hazards and threats) maps at national, regional, and local levels

    • Elaborate mitigation policy and strategy
      • Conduct a mitigation communication campaign

        Initiate, coordinate, and conduct a communication campaign

      • Establish planning and coordination

        Establish a mechanism for planning and coordination, including the following tasks:

        a. Prepare professional staff for planning and implementation of mitigation measures

        b. Conduct demonstrations

        c. Establish and certify educational modules

      • Formulate the mitigation strategy

        Formulate the strategy by performing the following tasks:

        a. Define strategy goals

        b. Provide 'goals-to-tasks' analysis

        c. Define mitigation measures (plans and programmes; at state and local level, international)

        d. Select and prioritise mitigation measures

      • Provide policy guidance

        Prepare and issue policy guidance by performing the following tasks:

        a. Analyse the effect of potential measures on hazards, cyber and CBRNE threats

        b. Analyse the effect of potential measures on the exposure of critical infrastructure and assets to hazards

        c. Collect, organise and use evidence to assess effects of mitigation measures

        d. Implement modelling and simulations to assess effects of mitigation measures

        e. Define mitigation principles and goals

    • Implement mitigation measures
      • Apply long-term vulnerability reduction measures

        Apply long-term vulnerability reduction and measures, incl.:

        a. Introduce land use planning and design decisions that avoid developments and community infrastructure in areas prone to hazards to reduce their possible impact and avoid to life, property and environment

        b. Ensure the reliability of critical infrastructure (such as physical facilities, supply chains, systems, assets, information technologies and communication networks) that provide essential services to the people (incl. safe drinking water, food, reliable transport, accessible public health services, energy for homes and industry, access to banking, finance and government services, and communications networks to connect the people socially and in business)

        c. Adopt and enforce hazard-resistant building codes and standards

        d. Design improvements to the existing infrastructure and essential services

        e. Perform capital works to reduce the impact of regular hazards such as seasonal flooding, icing, wildfires, tornados and others

        f. Establish back-up data storage and processing systems

        g. Take systematic measures to protect the landscape and environment form irreversible degradation

        h. Employ build-in safety, security and into the design and operation of assets, systems, and networks

        I. Initiate and maintain neighbourhood hazard civic (volunteers) associations

        j. Others

      • Enhance education, awareness and skills on mitigation measures

        Enhance education, awareness and skills in devising and implementing measures, incl.:

        a. Conduct community awareness campaigns to increase knowledge of how to prepare for events

        b. Introduce general education programmes to build knowledge on the appropriate actions to prepare for and respond to a event

        c. Conduct and programmes to improve skills and coordination in devising and implementing measures

      • Explore usability of natural values

        Explore usability of natural values, incl.:

        a. Further develop the multi-functionality of forests, land, rivers, lakes, seashore, and others through supporting the economic, recreational and amenity value chains

        b. Stimulate the incorporation of new restoration treatments into policy and management protocols

        c. Develop a shared view of priorities for natural stakes (e.g. map of soil erosion )

        d. Develop new approaches for long-term biomass management

        e. Regularly update the information on ecosystems vulnerability to various fire recurrences and intensities

      • Facilitate the implementation of a zero-waist approach to reduce hazards risks

        Promote technology and practice of using residual materials that may cause massive hazards, e.g. stimulate residual forestry biomass exploitation by private owners establishing specific markets and procedures to reduce the forest fires threat

    • Keep the mitigation strategy relevant
    • Organise for mitigation
      • Define national mitigation framework

        Develop a national framework, incl.:

        a. Perform national and define the scope of measures and activities

        b. Identify the key mitigation actors and stakeholders

        c. Establish stakeholders’ roles and responsibilities for hazards’ mitigation

        d. Define the core capabilities necessary to prepare for the specific types of disasters and crises that pose the greatest to the security of the people

        e. Relate the mitigation objectives and approaches to the remaining CM functional areas

        f. Establish national CM chain of direction and co-ordination – nationally and internationally

        g. Establish mitigation long-term and operational planning and resource framework at local, regional, national, and international levels

      • Develop expertise for hazards mapping, vulnerabilities and risk assessment

        Provide scientific, modelling and simulations, and technical expertise for hazards mapping, vulnerabilities , and to support policy-making and planning, e.g. in the elaboration and prioritisation of measures)

      • Provide for mitigation cooperation and coordination

        Provide for cooperation between governments and CM agencies to overcome cultural, institutional and legislative issues between countries in developing a common, all-hazards approach:

        a. Encourage the exchange of good practices on to hazards and sustainability, as well as on , preparation, , and

        b. Coordinate the use of international mechanisms such as the EU Civil Protection Mechanism, UN and other mechanisms

  • Protection functions
    • Conduct incident or emergency response
      • Conduct ammunition and counterIED operations

        Conduct ammunition and counter-IED operations, i.e.:

        a. Maintain, in coordination with the military, sufficient ammunition and counter-IED capacity

        b. Conduct ammunition and counter-IED operations

        c. Coordinate medical and psychological aid to affected people

      • Conduct emergency CBRN protection operations

        Conduct radiation/nuclear, chemical, and biological protection operations, i.e.:

        a. Maintain, in coordination with the military, sufficient CBRN protection capacity

        b. Conduct CBRN operations

        c. Coordinate medical and psychological aid to affected people

        d. Share threat information and analysis with international partners

      • Conduct emergency firefighting

        Conduct firefighting, i.e.:

        a. Maintain in high readiness sufficient firefighting capacities for urban, forest, and mountainous operations

        b. Conduct firefighting operations

        c. Coordinate medical and psychological aid to affected people

      • Conduct limited emergency evacuation operations

        Conduct limited evacuation operations, i.e.:

        a. Maintain and coordinate with the military capacity for evacuation

        b. Conduct evacuation operations

        c. Provide temporary shelters and special housing

        d. Coordinate medical and psychological aid to evacuated people

      • Coordinate and conduct incident SAR operations

        Coordinate and conduct incident search and rescue operations, i.e.:

        a. Maintain in high readiness search and rescue capacities for urban, sea/water, and mountainous operations

        b. Conduct search and rescue operations

        c. Coordinate medical and psychological aid to rescued people

      • Detect pending emergencies and provide early warning

        Detect pending emergencies or other threatening situations and provide early warning

    • Conduct operational planning
      • Coordinate planning with support providers

        Coordinate operational planning with military and other providers of support

      • Establish an operational planning framework

        Establish an operational planning framework, i.e.:

        a. Define planning assumptions to guide the development of operational plans

        b. Establish operations planning requirements for every level of CM command and management.

        c. Determine jurisdictional priorities, objectives, tasks, and resource acquisitions and allocations needed to protect against and respond to potential hazards and threats

        d. Make the operational planning framework available to all government agencies, local authorities, non-governmental and private business

      • Plan across ranges and level of activities

        Perform planning across the full range of activities at every level of CM command and management

    • Conduct systematic monitoring and data collection
      • Conduct monitoring and anticipation

        Conduct continuous monitoring and anticipate emergencies and crises, i.e.:

        a. Scan continuously hazards and threats and exchange information in relevant regional, national, and global frameworks

        b. Gather and store required raw data using sensing, detection, and surveillance technologies

        c. Combine cyber detection and physical surveillance to better protect critical CM networks and assets as well as elements of the critical infrastructure and critical information infrastructure

        d. Share systematically information, analyses, and reports

      • Raise awareness and anticipate

        Conduct analysis to raise awareness and anticipate emergencies, crises and their impact

        • Combine status with consequence analysis

          Combine 'current operational status' with consequence analysis to build a real-time geospatial framework in support of effective and timely decision-making

        • Maintain public awareness on hazards and respective services

          Maintain on hazards, availability of respective services, and the means by which they can be accessed

        • Provide predictive analysis and situational awareness

          Provide predictive analysis and deliver situational awareness to the decision-makers and first responders by using modelling, damage estimation, analysis, resource analysis and inventory, and organisational systems analysis

        • Provide professional and public relevant visualisation

          Provide professional and public-relevant visualisation of incidents and situations and protection operations

    • Coordinate and provide CII protection
    • Coordinate and provide public protection
    • Protect critical infrastructures
      • Apply case-specific protection measures

        Apply casespecific protection measures, i.e.:

        a. Employ security protection systems to detect or delay an attack or intrusion

        b. Detect malicious activities that threaten critical infrastructure and related operational activities across the sectors

        c. Implement intrusion detection and intrusion protection systems on sensitive or mission-critical networks and facilities to identify and prevent unauthorized access and exploitation

      • Establish CI reporting mechanism

        Establish national and international critical infrastructures' risks, threats, and vulnerabilities reporting mechanism

      • Establish Operator security plan

        Develop, approve, and implement security plan for each critical infrastructure

      • Introduce security liaison officer by every critical infrastucture operator
      • Maintain list of national and international critical infrastructures

        Maintain the list of national and international critical infrastructures, sectors and assets up to date, i.e.:

        a. Maintain the classification of national critical infrastructures, taking account of the effects of disruption or destruction of a particular infrastructure (geographic extent of the damage and seriousness of the consequences)

        b. Identify and analyse geographic and sectoral interdependencies

  • Recovery functions

    Decisions and actions aimed at restoring or improving livelihoods, health, as well as economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental assets, systems and activities, of a -affected community or society, aligning with the principles of sustainable development, including build back better to avoid or reduce future .

    • Adjust the recovery planning
      • Amend norms and legislation

        Formulate and introduce required changes in legal norms or government decisions (adjustments, amendments or introduction of new case-specific norms)

      • Establish and share detailed COP

        Establish detailed common operational picture and share it across the government, i.e.:

        a. Organise interagency fact finding mission

        b. Integrate collected data and information

        c. Invite scientific support on concrete issues

        d. Study possible secondary and collateral hazards

        e. Provide reports

      • Modify recovery plans and policies

        Modify the contingency plans, programmes, and policies as necessary

      • Provide for evidence-based decisionmaking

        Collect and verify data and develop tools to allow for evidence-based decision-making

    • Engage the population
      • Identify communities' priorities and perceived benefits

        Initiate a comprehensive on-site to identify communities' priorities and the impact of potential assistance measures

      • Maintain population's operational awareness

        Maintain population's operational awareness on operations and measures, i.e.:

        a. Deliver public information on the situation, and plans

        b. Instruct people how to act in case of secondary hazards and collateral damage

        c. Advice people on how to behave/ act in the situation

        d. Provide people with the ability to communicate privately in case of damaged public digital infrastructure and communication channels

        e. Establish liaison mechanism and communication channels between communities and institutions.

      • Organise volunteers and communities for recovery

        Organise activities of volunteers and communities in operations

    • Manage economic recovery
      • Assess economic reconstruction needs

        Coordinate and conduct comprehensive inter-agency and public-private economic reconstruction needs Assess economic consequences at the national, regional, and local level, evaluate and justify government's involvement in economic

      • Plan long-term economic recovery

        Plan long-term economic efforts, i.e.:

        a. Coordinate government, regional, local, and private efforts

        b. Coordinate agricultural programmes

        c. Introduce monetary instruments (e.g. assistance loans) to support the recovery of local industry, agriculture, trade, and tourism

      • Provide jobs' incentives or unemployment assistance

        Provide affected people with incentives to keep their jobs or special unemployment assistance

    • Manage environmental recovery
    • Manage humanitarian recovery
      • Address the needs of vulnerable populations

        Address the needs of vulnerable populations, paying special attention to big families, people with disabilities, and relatives to victims

      • Establish temporary school organisation

        Establish temporary for schooling of children

      • Manage volunteers providing social services

        Assist local authorities in managing volunteers providing social and psychosocial services

      • Provide food, water, and energy for the population

        Provide regular deliveries of food, water, and energy for private use

      • Provide reliable temporary sheltering

        Provide safe and reliable temporary sheltering and utilities

      • Restore critical medical and MHPSS services

        Restore critical medical and MHPSS services, i.e.:

        a. Provide comprehensive stress management, mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) and substance abuse services and programmes

        b. Establish (review, update) plans for sustainable medical

        c. Ensure treatment by relevant health care institutions and procedures

        d. Identify and mobilise health care resources (budget, personnel, equipment, facilities)

      • Support families' reunification

        Facilitate and support reunification of families from the affected area

    • Manage infrastructure recovery

      Manage infrastructure by performing the following functions:

      a. Coordinate and conduct comprehensive inter-agency and public-private reconstruction and rehabilitation needs

      b. Develop prioritised policy, plans, and programmes for infrastructure

      c. Mobilise public, private, and international resources for infrastructure recovery programmes

      d. Establish special legal norms and financial mechanisms to support individual and business infrastructure reconstruction

      e. Coordinate the rehabilitation of buildings and transportation infrastructure

      f. Provide governmental engineering services and other support to local authorities for public works and reconstruction of infrastructure

      g. Integrate state, local, and private efforts in infrastructure recovery

    • Provide immediate relief support
      • Expand the immediate health care

        Expand the immediate health care, i.e.:

        a. Notify affected people on the of health care

        b. Take epidemic measures

        c. Provide clinical care for the injured

        d. Apply infectious diseases' and control measures

      • Open critical transportation lines

        Open and maintain critical transportation lines and manage their use

      • Provide electricity

        Provide electricity support

      • Provide psychosocial support

        Provide psychosocial support to individuals and families

      • Upgrade the temporary sheltering

        Upgrade the temporary sheltering, i.e.:

        a. Estimate the actual needs

        b. Mobilise mutual aid resources

        c. Request and manage international support for temporary sheltering

    • Recover public lifelines
  • Response functions
    • Build the ground for relief and recovery
      • Decontaminate assets and infrastructure

        Conduct decontamination, inactivation, and detoxification of buildings, equipment, machines and land

      • Initiate disaster area cleaning

        Initiate general cleaning of the affected area

      • Manage the transition from response to recovery

        Manage the transition from to and implementation of long-term consequence management plans; Implement demobilization and deactivation plans

      • Restore the delivery of basic services

        Restore or provide for basic services and needs, e.g. water, food, energy, communications, etc.

    • Limit the impact of the crisis
      • Contain hazardous causes of the crisis
        • Control floods

          Conduct flood control operations

        • Control the range of CBRN agents

          Control the range of chemical, biological agents and radiation/nuclear agents or HAZMATs, incl.:

          a. Gather, assess and disseminate the available information to first responders

          b. Assess the scene (e.g. by first responders using Chemical, Biological and Radiological Detection, Identification and Monitoring Equipment to recognise the signs and indicators of CBRN or HAZMATs

          c. Isolate the scene to mitigate the consequences and establish inner and outer cordon (hot/warm/cold zone)

          d. Establish quarantine area for contaminated victims/casualties, as well as decontamination and triage areas

          e. Conduct CBNR and HAZMATs operations, including decontamination, evacuation, and others

        • Detect explosives and mitigate potential impact

          Detect explosives and undertake measures to mitigate their potential impact

        • Fight and contain fires

          Conduct firefighting and containment

      • Limit the impact of failure of digital infrastructures

        Limit the impact of digital infrastructures and assets' partial damage or complete dysfunctionality on the ability to manage the , to provide aid and services within affected areas, the ability of affected people to communicate, and the functionality of critical systems as electric power and gas delivery, air and railroad transportation, public communications, banking, and others

      • Protect CI from secondary damage

        Identify damaged critical infrastructure and key assets and coordinate immediate actions to protect them from secondary damage

      • Take immediate law enforcement measures

        Take immediate law enforcement measures, i.e.:

        a. Isolate the area affected by the

        b. Establish traffic control

        c. Maintain public order within the affected area

        d. Launch investigations

        e. Open-up lines of transportation and communication to safe(r) areas

    • Orient and decide
      • Conduct damage and needs assessment

        Conduct damage and needs , i.e.:

        a. Collect and integrate human and sensor data from the field and from airborne platforms

        b. Conduct situational analysis

        c. Conduct first damage and

        d. Identify the immediate needs of affected populations

        e. Develop a model- and data-based prediction of evolution and impact across domains

      • Decide on the introduction of crisis legislation

        Decide on the introduction of legislation and other measures, i.e.:

        a. Introduce crisis legislation at national, regional or local level

        b. Take other measures

        c. Deliver information on the situation and measures taken - nationally and internationally

      • Determine the nature of the crisis

        Collect information, determine and evaluate the nature of the

        • Conduct flights to collect information

          Conduct flight planning and operations to collect information and use data from airborne sensors for the

        • Determine and evaluate crisis triggers

          Determine and evaluate the causes, nature and source of the hazard (threat) triggering the

        • Survey or/and investigate the affected area

          Conduct inter-agency surveillance or/and investigation of the affected area

      • Manage warnings

        Manage warnings to the public, providers of essential services and operators of critical infrastructure, i.e.:

        a. Prepare warnings

        b. Authorise warnings

        c. Deliver warnings

      • Provide decision support

        Provide decision support, i.e.:

        a. Prepare information for decision-making

        b. Provide of impact across vulnerabilities (people, property, environment)

        c. Facilitate the prediction of the hazard and its impact

        d. Develop and evaluate courses of action

        e. Prioritise tasks and key resources

        f. Translate information into actionable formats for management users

        g. Provide scientific support to decision-making

      • Review and adjust the response plan

        Review and adjust the plan, i.e.:

        a. Decide on initial engagement of government agencies, local authorities and non-governmental organisations

        b. Adjust the management procedures according to the situation

        c. Adjust the chain of command and decide on deploying mobile management command centres

        d. Assess critical resource needs and ways of delivery

    • Respond to the hazard
      • Activate crisis management bodies

        Activate the command and management bodies and centres

      • Conduct coordinated tasking and resource management

        Conduct coordinated tasking and resource management, i.e.:

        a. Define, prioritise and assign tasks

        b. Identify sites suitable for command posts, staging areas, and ingress/egress routes

        c. Monitor and position resources

        d. Pool and share resources

        e. Assign resources to tasks

        f. Exchange information on tasks and resources

      • Deploy responders
        • Command response operations

          Command, coordinate, and manage operations

        • Conduct first on-site hazard and consequence assessment

          Conduct or support first on-site hazard and consequence , i.e. by establishing multi-agency investigation teams to improve the knowledge on the causes of the

        • Deploy first responders

          Command and manage deployment of first responders, incl.:

          a. Support the efforts of first-responder teams in the management of multi-causal situations

          b. Provide the first-responders with advanced hazard behaviour prediction through real-time analysis by considering the variability of hazard-specific characteristics

        • Determine the area of operations

          Determine the area of operation(s)

        • Manage deployment and delivery of first aid

          Manage deployment and delivery of resources for first aid

        • Manage organised volunteers

          Manage the deployment of organised volunteers and their tasking, resourcing, control, redeployment, etc.

        • Manage spontaneous volunteers

          Manage the on-site spontaneous volunteers

      • Maintain shared situational awareness

        Achieve and maintain shared situational awareness

        • Collect information from deployed sources

          Collect, manually and automatically, information from deployed operational centres, sensors, and other field equipment

        • Develop and sustain COP

          Develop and sustain a common operational picture (COP), based on information on hazard sources and evolution, identified vulnerabilities and potential risks

        • Disseminate COP and assessments

          Disseminate the common operational picture and assessments

        • Integrate data and information from various sources

          Integrate data and information from various sources; Fuse historical data, models' outputs and real-time data feeds in various formats to enhance the decision-makers' situational awareness

        • Predict hazards' escalation and impact

          Predict hazards' (wildfire, floods, radiation, chemical and biological agents, and others) propagation through real-time modelling and analysis by considering the variability of wind speed and direction, humidity and fuel moisture forecast and other relevant factors

      • Manage international support

        Manage international support, i.e.:

        a. Request international support

        b. Establish a coordination body, transportation routes, storage facilities

        c. Provide support to the international first responders

        d. Establish a mechanism for international financial support

      • Secure digital infrastructure and assets

        Take immediate measures to safeguard the functionality of digital infrastructure, i.e.:

        a. Filter or assign lower priority to suspicious network traffic

        b. Reconfigure critical CM networks

        c. Shut down specific services or parts of the CM network when a detected cyberattack is affecting the confidentiality or integrity of ongoing CM communication

    • Support affected people
      • Conduct SAR operations

        Conduct search and rescue operations: Search for missing people, rescue the victims, provide first aid, and move the people to safety

      • Decontaminate persons

        Provide decontamination, degassing and disinfection of persons

      • Establish emergency mobile phone

        Establish special mobile telephone access

      • Provide care for animals

        Provide care for animals in the affected area

      • Provide essential services to the affected community

        Provide essential services such as power to critical facilities; fuel supplies and potable water, mobile communications, and food and pharmaceuticals to the affected community.

      • Provide evacuation and shelter
      • Provide MHPSS

        Provide mental health and psycho-social support (MHPSS) to professional responders, volunteers and the affected population

      • Provide off-site health and MHPSS services

        Provide off-site health care and MHPSS services:

          a. Deploy field hospitals

          b. Provide transportation to regular hospitals

          c. Apply quarantine and isolation measures

          d. Perform mass prophylaxis and vaccination

          e. Provide psychological, psychosocial, paediatric and other specific care

      • Provide on-site first aid

        Provide on-site ambulances, first treatment service and psychological first aid

  • Security management
    • Conduct security orientation and planning
      • Develop preparedness security guidance

        Develop and promulgate security guidance

      • Develop security component in CM plans and systems

        Develop security component in the national, regional, and local management plans and systems, i.e.:

          a. Within the scenarios, identify security threats, issues and responses

          b. Identify and cluster inter-agency security capabilities requirements

          c. Establish a model of using security capabilities for functions

          d. Develop a security operations plan for the crisis management system

          e. Introduce security chapters in the crisis management planning at all command and management levels

          f. Establish and maintain security and reporting mechanism

      • Establish preliminary coordination

        Establish pre- security management coordination

      • Establish programmes for acquisition of security capabilities

        Establish central, agency-specific, regional, and local programmes for acquisition of security capabilities

      • Introduce security specific norms

        Introduce security specific norms as part of the management legislation

      • Provide performance guidelines

        Provide performance directives, guidelines, and instructions

    • Establish security management organisation
      • Establish a crisis security clearance system

        Establish a security clearance system, i.e.:

          a. Establish a national authentication and security identification certification system for responders and official personnel and other non-governmental personnel requiring access to affected areas

          b. Establish a national database of cleared staff and volunteers

      • Establish secure information exchange

        Establish a system to exchange security information

      • Establish security coordination and control organisations

        Establish security coordination and control organisations according to the CM chain of command, as well as in private and non-governmental entities planned to engage in CM operations

      • Introduce chief security officer

        Introduce chief security officer (manager) in each command and management entity

      • Provide expertise and coordination for security planning

        Provide expertise and coordination for security planning efforts and for conducting technical assessments (e.g. vulnerability assessments, analyses, surveillance sensor architecture, etc.)

    • Exercise on-site security control
      • Coordinate security measures with other operations

        Coordinate security measures with other search and rescue, and operations

      • Perform access, traffic, and crowd control

        Perform access, traffic, and crowd control within and on the borders of the affected area, in temporary evacuation facilities and camps, i.e.:

          a. Provide security forces to support state and local efforts to control access to the incident site and critical facilities

          b. Provide security forces and establish protective measures around the affected site, critical infrastructure, and critical facilities

          c. Secure protection of responders and other workers operating in a high-threat environment, and provide operational security of operations wherever they may occur

          d. Establish public traffic control

          e. Deploy capacities for crowd control

      • Test critical infrastructure security plans

        Develop and implement programmes to test critical infrastructure security plans

    • Provide key security capabilities
      • Develop and conduct security management training

        Develop and conduct to improve all-hazard security management , i.e.:

          a. Develop standardised courses on security management

          b. Provide training courses for the security officers

          c. Tailor security management courses and provide training for volunteers

          d. Deliver guidelines on security to the population, business entities, and institutions

      • Staff with qualified personnel

        Staff with qualified personnel, i.e.:

          a. Establish key competencies’ requirements for security staff

          b. Select, motivate, certify, and maintain professional security staff at national and local levels, as well as for private and non-governmental entities

      • Supply security control equipment

        Supply security control equipment, i.e. provide specialised security assets such as traffic barriers; chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosives detection devices; canine units; law enforcement personal protective gear; etc.

  • Strategic adaptiveness
    • Build and measure community resilience
      • Establish measures and measurement of resilience

        Establish measures of and approaches, i.e.:

        a. Explore community-based approaches for measuring

        b. Establish framework for

        c. Use modelling to analyse the impacts of

      • Improve communities' preparedness, responsiveness, learning, self-organisation, and innovation

        Improve communities’ , responsiveness, learning, self- , and , incl.:

        a. Regularly update guidelines or procedures on how citizens should equip themselves for emergencies involving extreme events

        b. Stimulate the implementation of advanced restoration treatment

        c. Organise educational and awareness campaigns

        d. Develop new awareness raising methods to overcome attitude and behavioural barriers

      • Provide for bonding and linking communities' assets across borders

        Provide for bonding, bridging, and linking communities' assets across the country and throughout the European Union

      • Strengthen community assets for resilience

        Strengthen the community financial, physical, MHPSS, political, human, social, and natural assets for

      • Strengthen the communities' capacity for collective actions

        Strengthen the communities’ capacity for collective actions for reduction, conflict , social protection, natural resource management, and management of public goods and services:

        a. Empower local communities with tools, information and skills to recognise the benefits of integrated hazards management

        b. Conduct awareness-raising campaigns for targeted stakeholder groups Communicate the social, environmental and economic benefits of community action and

        c. Adopt participatory planning to evaluate the general public's acceptance of a given hazard management policy in different regions

        d. Develop flexible management plans and policies that account for the differences in local and regional contexts

    • Conduct civil security foresight
      • Explore the implications of alternative futures

        Explore the implications of alternative management futures, e.g. conduct exercises (table top, academia) and simulations in alternative futures' scenarios

      • Identify key drivers and trends

        Identify key drivers of change and trends in the civil security environment, incl.:

        a. Analyse historical characteristics of critical hazards and form central databases with harmonised information on single-hazard events

        b. Update and detail the information on hazards’ occurrence and behaviour in sensitive areas (e.g. wildland-urban), e.g. with respect to land use fragmentation and climate change

        c. Consider climate change in hazards' projections

        d. Include direct environmental losses (e.g. forests, infrastructures) and indirect losses (e.g. air quality, biodiversity, etc.) into the economic of damages

      • Identify plausible futures

        Identify plausible future hazards, environments, and management futures, incl.:

        a. Project and use projections of changes in hazards to evaluate impact of climate change on forest fires, floods, extreme weather, and others

        b. Identify thresholds of change and tipping points in ecosystem regeneration with account of climate trends and past land use management history

        c. Consider ecosystems functioning in the design of adaptation strategies

        d. Account for multiple risks in the management of forests, water, and land including biotic and abiotic disturbances (e.g. insects, wind storms, droughts, and others)

    • Develop capacity to adapt
      • Create and maintain materiel reserves

        Create and maintain materiel reserves, e.g. particular vaccines, for scenarios not considered likely in the near future, but are plausible in an alternative future (e.g. in grey and black swan scenarios)

      • Develop options and estimate required resources

        Develop possible courses of action across plausible alternative futures and estimate respective required resources.

        • Develop adaptation policies

          Provide for adaptation of CM policies and management decisions, incl.:

          a. Assess relevance of existing CM policies and management decisions to alternative futures

          b. Identify adaptation and development pathways (with emphasis on hazard-resilient landscapes) per alternative futures

        • Develop courses of action in alternative futures

          Develop potential courses of action in plausible alternative futures of management

        • Establish coordination with military and other backup

          Establish coordination with the military and other available backup units and personnel, e.g. organisations with CBRN capabilitiess

        • Estimate resource requirements

          Estimate resource requirements; Identify specific needs and critical resources per alternative futures

      • Maintain hazards and CM research capacity and agenda

        Maintain hazards and management research and development capacity and agenda, incl.:

        a. Network, collaborate, communicate and share experiences

        b. Establish robust research governance and support structures, build-in monitoring, and lessons learning with account of alternative futures

        c. Conduct pilot and demonstration projects to facilitate and prepare for uncertainty

        d. Develop flexible research agendas

    • Promote CM organisational agility
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